KEY TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ARSMS (Automated Radiation Situation Monitoring System) — a system of technical facilities designed for providing permanent automated radiological and meteorological monitoring at the industrial site, buffer zone and supervised area, under all NPP operating modes (normal operation, design-basis and beyond design-basis accidents, and decommissioning activities).
Nuclear industry – a branch of power engineering that uses nuclear energy for electricity and heat generation.
VVER-1000 – a water-water energetic reactor with water as heat carrier and decelerator. The installed electric capacity of one power unit is 1,000 MW. They have 3,000 MW thermal capacity.
VVER-440 – a water-water energetic reactor with 440 MW electric capacity and 1,375 MW thermal capacity.
Radioactive release – radionuclide emission into the atmosphere, resulting from operation of a nuclear facility.
SF (spent fuel) – special type of radioactive nuclear fuel materials which present used (irradiated) nuclear fuel from NPP.
State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine – nuclear regulatory agency, the main central executive authority which forms and implements the public policy in the area of safe use of nuclear power.
Exogenic geological processes – geological processes taking place at or near the Earth's surface; they are mostly caused by solar radiation, in combination with the force of gravity and activity of organisms.
EBRD (the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development) – an international financial institution that helps countries from Central Europe to Central Asia to implement market reforms and integrate into international business relations.
Euratom (European Atomic Energy Community) contributes to development and research of nuclear energy, creation of the common nuclear fuel market, control over nuclear facilities and the development of the peaceful uses of nuclear technologies in line with uniform safety standards.
Ionising radiation – any type of particle or electromagnetic radiation that has the potential to excite an atom or molecule through direct or indirect interactions.
Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation (INSC) – a nuclear safety cooperation programme that has been implemented by the EU since 2007 instead of TACIS programme of the European Commission (1992-2006) that was in effect in Ukraine and a number of other independent states at that time.
Capacity utilisation factor – an important characteristic of the operational efficiency of NPP which presents the ratio of power unit (power plant) output for a specific time interval to the power unit output which could be reached at the nominal (installed) capacity for this time interval.
CCSUP (Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs) – the programme for improving safety at Ukrainian NPPs which was approved by Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dd. 7 December 2011 No. 1270. CCSUP was developed to make further improvements to safety as part of the implementation of long-term strategy for safety enhancement of Energoatom’s power units. The programme allows Ukraine to meet its commitment as to the implementation of the IAEA recommendations that are based on the Ukrainian NPPs’ design safety assessment carried out in 2008-2010 within the EC-IAEA-Ukraine Project. It can also help Ukraine meet its obligations to EBRD/Euratom as to the implementation of safety measures.
Safety culture – is defined as a set of characteristics and attitudes in organisations and individuals and establishes that nuclear plant safety issues are an overriding priority and addressed according to their significance.
IAEA (the International Atomic Energy Agency) – an international organisation that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
National Energy and Utilities Regulatory Commission of Ukraine – an independent collective government agency which provides government regulation, monitoring and control over business entities in the energy sector and utilities.
EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) – is used to establish the nature, intensity and extent of hazardous impact of any scheduled business activity on the environment and public health.
Paris Climate Agreement – an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation starting from 2020. The agreement took effect on 4 November 2016.
A greenhouse gas (GHG) – a gas that absorbs heat energy emitted from Earth's surface and clouds and reradiates it back to the Earth. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), ozone (O3), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and perfluorocarbons (PFC).
RAW processing includes operations that intend to change the characteristics and/or the physical and chemical composition of radioactive waste and produce a waste package suitable for handling, transportation, storage and/or disposal.
RAW treatment – a general term that combines all types of operations associated with processing, conditioning, transportation, storage and/or disposal of radioactive waste.
Post-Fukushima measures – actions under the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs that have been developed subject to the results of the deep complementary safety assessment of Ukrainian NPPs (stress tests). Such stress tests were carried out at European NPPs after the accident at Fukushima NPP in order to prevent serious accidents and ensure serious accident management.
Radiation safety – compliance with the radiation exposure limits prescribed by safety regulations, rules and standards for the staff, population and environment.
Radioactive waste (RAW) – nuclear materials and radioactive substances that cannot be used any longer.
Sustainable use of natural resources – the use of natural resources to the extent and in a way that ensure sustainable economic development, harmonised interaction between the society and natural environment, efficient use of natural resources potential, economic mechanisms for environmentally friendly use of nature.
Emergency Response System (ERS) – a complex of interconnected technical means and resources, organisational, technical and radiation prevention activities undertaken by an organisation to ensure emergency response — prevention or mitigation of radiation impact on the staff, population and the environment in case of an accident at NPP as well as in case of an emergency caused by such an accident.
NPP social infrastructure – cultural, sports and recreation facilities that are open for families of NPP employees and local residents.
Dry spent fuel storage facility - a site or installation for dry storage of spent fuel.
Sustainable energy – energy produced and used in ways that support human development over the long term, in all its social, economic, and environmental dimensions. The definition was given at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit (1992).
Third EU Energy Package - a legislative package for an internal gas and electricity market in the European Union. Its purpose is to further open up the gas and electricity markets in the European Union. It entered into force on 3 September 2009.
Physical protection – activity in the area of the use of nuclear power that is undertaken to ensure protection of nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, radioactive waste and other sources of ionising radiation and to strengthen the nuclear non-proliferation regime.
Civil defence – a function of the government to protect population, territories, the environment and property from accidents by preventing emergency situations, eliminating accident consequences and providing help to the victims during peacetime and also in times of crisis and conflict.
Central Spent Fuel Storage Facility (CSFSF) – an interim storage facility which is to be built at the site of the Chernobyl exclusion zone to store spent nuclear fuel from Rivne, South Ukraine and Khmelnytska NPPs.
ENTSO-E – European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity.
EUR (European Utility Requirement) – an international group established by European organisations that brings together 18 leading European energy generating companies operating over 130 power units with light water reactors. The organisation seeks to develop technical requirements for designs of new Generation III/III+ LWR nuclear power plants to ensure further development of nuclear industry in Europe.
IFNEC (International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation) – formerly the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) began as a U.S. proposal announced by United States Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman on 6 February 2006 to form an international partnership to promote the use of nuclear power and close the nuclear fuel cycle in a way that reduces nuclear waste and the risk of nuclear proliferation.
INES (International Nuclear Event Scale) – was developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to rate nuclear accidents. Since 1990, the scale has been applied to classify accidents associated with emergency radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants, then extended to enable it to be applied to all installations associated with the civil nuclear industry.
INPRO (The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) – was established in 2000 to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century in a sustainable manner. It is a mechanism that enables INPRO Member States to cooperate in the areas of common interest.
ISO 9001 – specifies requirements for a quality management system.
ISO 14001 – an international standard that specifies requirements for an environmental management system that an organisation can use to enhance its environmental performance.
OHSAS 18001 – an international occupational health and safety management system standard. OHSAS 18001 helps enhance health and safety working environment at the plants.
ProZorro – systematic reform of public procurement tenders in Ukraine.
STEM education – a sequence of courses or programmes of study that prepares students for successful employment, post-secondary education, or both that require different and more technically sophisticated skills including the application of mathematics and science skills and concepts. STEM stands for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics.