Executive Production Director, SE NNEGC Energoatom
SE NNEGC Energoatom has set the goal to meet the highest safety standards among the world's operators of nuclear power plants and confidently moves in this direction. The Company considers safety as the absolute priority and integrates it all areas of its activity.
SE NNEGC Energoatom is taking actions to cultivate the safety culture as one of the fundamental principles of NPP safety. For more than 20 years, SE NNEGC Energoatom has been making every effort to form a strong safety culture in all divisions based on the technical proficiency and professionalism of staff involved in the operation of nuclear power units and their internal conviction to comply with the established regulations and rules. SE NNEGC Energoatom constantly develops, supports and improves safety culture taking into account the best world experience and recommendations of the IAEA.
The Company is now implementing the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs (CCSUP) to ensure continuous improvement in the nuclear safety and efficient and reliable operation of the energy industry, raise the level of safety at Ukrainian NPPs and bring them in line with the internationally recognised requirements for nuclear safety and environmental protection.
SE NNEGC Energoatom has faced even more stringent requirements in connection with external aggression and the counter-terrorism operation in the eastern Ukraine that started in 2014. First, this is about physical protection of nuclear power plants and better arrangements of training staff for emergency response, including in case of sabotage or terrorist attacks. Since 2014, NPPs of Ukraine have been operating in enhanced security mode to ensure security and physical protection of nuclear facilities.
The effectiveness of the Company's work in ensuring safety at NPPs is proven by the fact that since 2013 no failure modes have been recorded as defined by the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Number of unscheduled reactors shutdowns per 7,000 hours of reactor criticality is 0.14, which is 4.7 times lower than the global indicator and 2.4 times lower than the average among WANO members (MC).
The Company cares about the welfare of the present and future generations and environmental protection and fully realises the impact of its activities on people and the environment, therefore the safety issue for Energoatom will always remain the highest priority.
SAFETY AS THE TOP PRIORITY
As set forth by the Convention for Nuclear Safety, improving and maintaining the level of safety of NPP54 Ukraine signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety on 20 September 1994 and put it into effect by the Law of Ukraine On Ratification of the Convention on Nuclear Safety on 17 December 1997. power units that has been already achieved is a priority objective of the public policy in the area of use of nuclear energy and has the highest priority for the operating organisation.
As the sole operator of Ukrainian NPPs, Energoatom ensures constant improvement of safety at existing power units and applies best practices and international standards in the operation of nuclear power plants.
As an operating organisation, Energoatom is guided by the main safety principles in its nuclear power operations.
Safety of people and the environment is the highest priority for Energoatom.
Energoatom ensures high level of nuclear, radiation, ecological and operational safety that meets national and international standards.
Embedding safety culture
Responsibility of the operating organisation
State safety regulation
Implementing the defence-in-depth strategy
Organisational and technical principles:
Applying use-proven engineering practices
Human factor considerations
In-house assessment of NPP safety
Ensuring radiation safety
R&D support and technical assistance
Annually, Energoatom undertakes a number of activities to ensure proper level of safety at nuclear power plants. To ensure the compliance of Ukrainian NPPs with the strict legal requirements and recommendations of international organisations, the Company has been implementing the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs (CCSUP). The actions specified by this programme are based on the recommendations of IAEA and the EU and help increase the safety level at nuclear power units as well as the reliability of nuclear facilities.
Energoatom seeks to use the best international practices in occupational health and safety. For this purpose, the management system in accordance with OHSAS 18001:200755 OHSAS 18001 is an internationally applied standard for occupational health and safety management system that helps create a safe and healthy working environment at the companies. has been integrated across all separate subdivisions of Energoatom and the Head Office.
Energoatom has the H&S service in place. The company also develops and implements comprehensive measures to achieve the respective H&S and production environment standards and improve the safety culture.
Realising all the risks to the staff engaged in the activity of Energoatom and the nature of nuclear and thermal energy production, the Company takes every effort to reduce the risk of occupational injuries and diseases and also cares for the health of its employees.
The Company is always open to the leading international practices and is ready for a dialogue with the public, cooperation with national and international organisations to ensure further improvement of the nuclear safety culture.
The commitment to the safety culture as one of the basic principles of safe operation of the nuclear power sector is a priority objective for all senior managers and employees of Energoatom.
ENERGOATOM UNIFIED TECHNICAL POLICY
The goals of Energoatom’s operations include power generation, safe operation and improvement of the efficiency of NPP operation. To this end, it is important for the Company to implement the Unified Technical Policy at the Company's NPPs. The Uniform Technical Policy has been developed with consideration of the NPP operating experience and takes into account the progress achieved in the national and world science and technology and is subject to the principle of cost efficiency.
To implement the Unified Technical Policy, Energoatom has committed to take the following actions:
- adopt and implement the unified technical solutions;
- develop and implement plans and actions for safety upgrade and improvement;
- develop unified approaches and requirements for maintenance and operation of equipment and systems and apply unified devices and methods;
- establish uniform requirements for the development, coordination and processing of all types of documents (regulatory, production, procedural and management, etc.);
- develop and ensure the functioning of a comprehensive, effective system for scientific, technical and engineering support of Energoatom’s NPPs.
The Unified Technical Policy of Energoatom suggests incorporating best national and international operating practices and modernisation of NPP power units, with consideration of special aspects of individual power units.
Fundamental principles of the Unified Technical Policy of Energoatom:
The Company is responsible for radiation protection and safety of nuclear installations in accordance with Ukrainian laws on the nuclear energy use
The Company applies only use proven technical solutions with consideration of their efficiency and uses the equipment in accordance with their design and regulatory requirements
The Company takes into account the operating experience and the safety analysis results in the technical decision making
The projects implemented by Energoatom comply with the principles of the Unified Technical Policy:
- The Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs (CCSUP). The list of activities is the same for all reactor installations. The same concept is used for implementing the activities at power units within one project and the equipment meets the same technical requirements.
- Extension of the life cycle of the NPP power units.
- Complex Radioactive Waste Treatment Programme.
- Programme for the Reconstruction of Radiation Monitoring Systems.
- NPP Equipment Ageing Control Programme.
- Programme for the Safe Operation of Reactor Containment Vessels.
- Establishment of internal and external crisis centres at each NPP site in accordance with the requirements of a unified regulatory document.
NUCLEAR AND RADIATION SAFETY
The key to nuclear and radiation safety is accident-free operation of the existing nuclear facilities and other nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities on an ongoing basis. To achieve this goal, it is required not only to ensure proper design and licensing of all phases of the nuclear facilities life cycle (from design to operation), but also to observe all regulations and rules during their operation.
The State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine is the main authorised central executive authority in Ukraine that regulates the safe use of nuclear energy and radiation safety. According to international requirements, the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine as the regulatory body is responsible for issuing official permits, taking regulatory actions, making reviews and evaluations, carrying out inspections and imposing sanctions, as well as for introducing safety principles, criteria, regulations and instructions.
As the operating organisation, Energoatom is fully responsible for the radiation protection and safety of nuclear installations at Zaporizhzhya, Rivne, Khmelnytska, and South-Ukraine NPPs.
In 2016, Energoatom ensured safe operation of NPPs. There were recorded no accidents with radiation consequences. The exposure dose rates for employees were not exceeded.
Overall, 730 violations have been recorded since 1996 through May 2017, including:
- 90.68% (662 violations) with “0” level (at the boundary below scale) and beyond the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)
- 8.90% (65 violations) with ІNES level “1” (anomalies)
- 0.41% (3 violations) with INES level “2” (incident)
LEVEL OF RADIATION SAFETY AT UKRAINIAN NPPS
In Ukraine, NPPs are operated in accordance with the requirements of the laws On the Use of Nuclear Energy and Radiation Safety, On Human Protection against Impact of Ionising Radiation, radiation safety standards, and other regulatory documents. All these regulatory documents have been designed to define the basic requirements to healthcare in order protect people from possible harm connected with irradiation coming from sources of ionising radiation; to safe operation of nuclear power plants; and to the environmental protection.
A nuclear power plant meets the safety requirements when its radiation impact does not lead to exposure to the radiation dose exceeding the established limits for NPP staff and the population, as well as when it meets the standards for gas and aerosol discharges, liquid discharges, and radioactive emissions.
NPP environmental footprint standards are based on the level of emissions and discharges of the following radioactive substances: gas aerosol emissions of inert radioactive gases, iodine radionuclides, long-lived nuclides and discharge of cesium-137 (137Cs), cobalt-60 (137Со), and tritium (3Н).
Permissible levels have been calculated to ensure that radioactive substances that can be released into the environment from nuclear power plants do not cause radiation exposure of the population in excess of the dose limit specified by radiation safety standards.
Permissible radiation levels:
- 40 μSv of gas and aerosol radioactive substances;
- 10 μSv of radioactive substances that come with water discharges.
Since early 2016, the actual percentage of radioactive emissions and discharges has not exceeded 1%.
In 2016, the average annual exposure dose for an employee at nuclear facilities did not exceed 1 mSv, which is 5% of the annual dose limit for this category of staff (20 mSv).
In general, in 2016 the radiation parameters at the plant did not exceed the established exposure limit. The level of radiation protection for staff and the population was relatively high.
Average daily radioactive gas and aerosol emissions in 2016 by month, % of permissible daily level
Quarterly radioactive discharges into water in 2015 and 2016, % of permissible yearly level
Average individual radiation dose of NPP staff over four quarters of 2015 and 2016, including total indicator, mZv
Security and physical protection of Energoatom nuclear facilities and other nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities, which use and store nuclear and radioactive materials, including during their transportation, is provided in accordance with the requirements of the applicable legislation of Ukraine, which meets the recommendations of the IAEA.
In accordance with the requirements of the Law of Ukraine On Physical Protection of Nuclear Installations, Nuclear Materials, Radioactive Waste, and Other Sources of Ionising Radiation dd. 19 October 2000, No. 2064-III, the system of physical protection of nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, radioactive waste, and other sources of ionising radiation presents a set of organisational, legal, engineering and technical measures that target to create conditions which can minimise the possibility for committing sabotage, theft or any other unlawful seizure of radioactive materials and strengthen the regime of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Physical protection is a part of nuclear energy use operations, which is to ensure security of nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, radioactive waste, and other sources of ionising radiation, and strengthen the regime of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
Today nuclear power plants of Ukraine are taking active measures to increase the security of nuclear installations because of facing modern threats, first of all, the threat of nuclear terrorism.
These projects are financed at the expense of Energoatom. However, efforts are being taken to attract foreign investment to bring the system of physical protection of nuclear power plants to the requirements of the world’s best standards.
Since 2014, the Ukrainian nuclear power plants have had an enhanced mode of security and physical protection of nuclear facilities. According to the applicable legislation, a strategic company is subject to protection by a military unit of the National Guard of Ukraine. The staff of the military unit is provided with all the necessary special tools for the accomplishment of the task.
Given today's realities, it would be no exaggeration to say that ensuring the physical protection of nuclear power plants, their nuclear and radiation safety are the priorities of national security.
Energoatom’s key physical protection objectives:
- Ensure the functioning of the system of physical protection of nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, radioactive waste, and other sources of ionising radiation in order to prevent an act of sabotage, terrorism, theft or any other way of illegal seizure of such materials or their illicit circulation.
- Create the conditions for achieving the goals of physical protection of nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, radioactive waste, other sources of ionising radiation and as a result to minimise the possibility of unauthorised seizure of nuclear material, as well as any deliberate acts which may directly or indirectly create a threat to health or safety of the population and the environment as a result of radiation.
- Shape and promote the nuclear safety culture.
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE
NPP safety is ensured through consistent implementation of the five-level strategy of defence-in-depth protection.
Emergency preparedness and response is the last of five levels of implementation of the defence-in-depth protection strategy, which includes56 According to NP 3062.141-2008 “General Safety Provisions for NPPs”. :
- creation of the buffer zone and the supervised area around the NPP;
- development of emergency plans, emergency response plans; the efficiency of such plans and preparedness for their implementation are to be checked from time to time during emergency training and exercises;
- construction of anti-radioactive shelters and crisis centres.
In the event of an accident and emergency at the nuclear power plant, the actions of this level are implemented through the Emergency Preparedness and Response System of Energoatom.
This system was created in accordance with the recommendations of the IAEA, the requirements of the nuclear legislation of Ukraine, regulations, rules and standards on nuclear and radiation safety, as well as the legislation in the area of civil protection.
Energoatom, NPPs and other separate subdivisions under its umbrella fully meet the requirements of the nuclear and civil protection legislation in the part relating to their obligations and responsibilities to develop and implement emergency preparedness and response measures and civil protection actions.
The system of emergency preparedness and response of Energoatom is the complex of interrelated technical means and resources, organisational, technical and radiation protection measures implemented by the operating organisation for the purpose of emergency response, prevention or reduction of radiation exposure to the staff, population and the environment in the event of an accident at the nuclear power plant and an emergency situation that may be triggered by the accidents.
ENERGOATOM EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE STRUCTURE
Energoatom’s key objectives in emergencies:
- Mobilise resources of the operating organisation to help the NPP which has faced an emergency situation including with the engagement of the resources of other NPPs;
- Coordinate the actions of Emergency and Technical Centre and AtomRemontService in helping the NPP that has faced an emergency situation;
- Help the NPP that has faced an emergency situation to receive assistance from the Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine, and other central executive authorities;
- Interact with the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate, the Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine, the State Emergency Service of Ukraine and other central executive authorities.
Emergency plan hierarchy:
Radiation accident emergency response plan
Standard emergency response plan of Ukrainian NPPs
Emergency response plan of Energoatom Head Office
NPP emergency plans
General procedures in case of an accident at NPP:
Civil defence is the government function to protect the population, territories, the environment and property from emergencies by preventing such situations, eliminating their consequences and assisting the victims in peacetime and in a special period 57 The definition is in line with the Code of Civil Defense of Ukraine dd. 2 October 2012, No. 5403-VI. .
Energoatom has separate subdivisions in place that are authorised to protect staff (workers), territories, environment and the property in the event of emergencies in accordance with the requirements of the Code of Civil Defence of Ukraine: in peacetime and during a special period.
Civil defence is based on the following principles:
- the government shall guarantee and ensure the constitutional rights of citizens to protection of life, health and property;
- an integrated approach to solving civil defence objectives;
- priority of objectives that target to save lives and safeguard the health of citizens;
- greatest possible, economically reasonable mitigation of the emergency risk;
- centralisation of management, unity of command, subordination, statutory discipline of the Search and Rescue Service of Civil Defence, and emergency rescue services;
- publicity, transparency, free receipt and dissemination of public information about the status of civil defence, except for the restrictions established by law;
- voluntariness in case of involving citizens in the implementation of civil defence measures that bear risk to their life and health;
- responsibility of officials of state authorities and local self-government bodies to comply with the requirements of civil defence laws;
- justified risk and liability of the leaders of the civil defence forces in providing safety during rescue and other urgent operations.
COMPLEX (CONSOLIDATED) SAFETY UPGRADE PROGRAM OF POWER UNITS OF UKRAINIAN NPPS
The accident at Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan has posed a new challenge to the world community: the need to conduct safety reassessment and provide resources to NPPs in case of extreme natural exposures, including those with impact beyond the design-basis values.
After this accident, the safety of Energoatom nuclear power units underwent an extraordinary reassessment. The Company took into account all possible scenarios of events during a natural disaster or other extreme situations and conducted the audit in line with the recommendations of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG). Following the results of the reassessment, the Company developed further measures to enhance the safety level. Combined safety upgrade measures were first applied at pilot power units and then at other power units, given the test results.
Power Unit Safety Upgrade Programmes, 2002-2020
Complex Modernisation and Safety Upgrade Programme of NPPs
"Aster-the-Launch" Upgrade Programme for Khmelnytska NPP Unit No.2 and Rivne NPP Unit No.4
Concept for safety upgrade of NPP power units
Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs
Complex Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs is the main programme for safety improvement at Ukrainian nuclear power plants. Approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the CCSUP is financed by Energoatom and €600 million-worth loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Euratom.
These activities will help ensure that the safety level at Ukrainian NPPs meets the international standards, improve the basic nuclear safety criteria specified by the regulations and rules for nuclear and radiation safety (reducing the probability of damage to the reactor core and risks of emergency radioactive discharges), and bring down the number of failures of NPP equipment and unscheduled stoppages. In addition, the implementation of the programme will help create the necessary conditions required for the decisions on extension of the life cycle of NPP power units.
CCSUP measures are being implemented at the sites of all four operating nuclear power plants of Ukraine and include:
- measures to increase the design and operational safety of nuclear power plants in accordance with the international commitments of Ukraine;
- activities developed on the basis of operating experience;
- emergency prevention measures developed to prevent emergencies similar to Fukushima-1 accident in Japan. Among them there are measures aimed at:
- prevention of external extreme effects and loss of security functions;
- severe accident management (in particular, measures for the development of guidelines for severe accident management for each Ukrainian NPP) and others;
- measures to prevent fire and ensure its timely detection, localisation and liquidation;
- measures to replace equipment that has exhausted its resource with modern equipment.
The company has 611 measures left to be completed as part of the CCSUP, of which about 200 actions are scheduled for 201758 For more about Energoatom’s measures under the CCSUP, please go to http://www.atom.gov.ua/en/actvts/integrated_security_program/46366-vikonannya_kompleksno_zvedeno_programi_pdvischennya_bezpeki_energoblokv_atomnih_elektrostantcyi_ukrani_u_vmu_kvartal__roku/ .
The implementation of a package of environmental and social measures by Energoatom is one of the conditions of European lending institutions. One of such measures suggests the implementation of the environmental impact assessment as part of the CCSUP every five years. The first environmental impact assessment within the CCSUP was carried out in 2011 by an independent international group involving experts from Poyry company, the Ukrainian Centre for Ecological and Water Projects and AESCAR company.
In 2016, a number of activities were undertaken for the next environmental assessment as part of the CCSUP: public consultations on the scale of environmental assessment and the direct environmental assessment, public hearings on the issue and publication of the final version of the report (for more details, please see the Environmental Responsibility section).
The goals of the CCSUP include:
- Increasing the safety and reliability of nuclear power units
- Reducing the risk of accidents at NPPs during natural disasters or other emergencies
- Improving the efficiency of design-basis and beyonddesign basis accident management, minimise the consequences of such accidents.
AS PART OF THE CCSUP
IMPLEMENTED AS OF THE END OF 2016
COLLECTIVE AND INDIVIDUAL SAFETY CULTURE
Successful nuclear power generation, which covers more than half of electricity production in Ukraine, largely depends on the safety culture principles.
The formation of a strong safety culture in separate subdivisions of the Company helps, if not to eliminate, then at least to significantly minimise the possibility of adverse events, especially those that are associated with the human factor.
The experience of operating nuclear power plants shows that the causes of accidents and incidents are somehow related to human behaviour (human factors), namely, employees’ attitude to safety issues. Therefore, the NPP management are primarily focused on human resources, style and methods of management, and socio-psychological climate in production teams.
All the staff, starting with the highest administrative level, is engaged in the safety culture cultivation at Energoatom. NPPs have standing safety culture committees in place. These are panel bodies that coordinate the activities of the NPP subunits in terms of supporting and enhancing the safety culture of staff.
Being aware of the importance of safety in the NPP operation and taking into account the recommendations of the IAEA, Energoatom constantly takes measures to form, support and enhance the safety culture.
According to experts from the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), Energoatom occupies its worthy place in the world atomic community in terms of NPP safety and safety culture development. Each Ukrainian NPP has good practice that is in line with the best world practices and has been gained during the implementation of international projects, technical assistance missions, as well as the recommendations of the IAEA and WANO60 WANO is the World Association of Nuclear Operators. .
The Company supports and encourages the formation of a safety culture, both among own employees and among workers of other organisations that perform works for the NPP.
To achieve the safety culture of the level of the world’s best companies, it is necessary to:
- use the best international practices, adapt the practices for the Company’s NPPs, and following the results of pilot testing at the pilot station, apply these practices to other nuclear power plants of Energoatom;
- improve and replicate the existing good practice of Energoatom at all departments (own developments, experience gained during the implementation of international projects, results of the IAEA and WANO missions, trips of staff to foreign nuclear power plants, comments and recommendations of regulatory authorities, etc.).
Energoatom has established the Safety Culture Council to determine the safety culture goals and objectives and streamline work on the implementation of the safety culture principles in the operation of Energoatom NPPs, exchange experience, assess the current level of safety culture at NPPs, as well as for the purpose of consideration, approval and follow-up control over the implementation of action plans of individual NPPs and the Company as a whole.
Safety culture is a assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organisations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance59 NP 306.2.-141-2008 “General Safety Provisions for NPP”, as defined by the IAEA. .
Each Ukrainian NPP has good practice guidelines in the area of safety culture that are in line with the best world experience.
The key objectives of the Safety Culture Council:
Develop safety culture goals and objectives
Adopt a safety culture development platform
Assess the status of safety at Energoatom and its NPPs
Assess the status of the platform implementation
Consider system-wide issues relating to the implementation of safety culture principles at NPPs and Energoatom, make the relevant decisions regarding the remedial actions
Make decisions on allocation/distribution of resources required for performance of safety culture-related works
Make decisions on key strategic areas of safety culture development
Assess the efficiency of executive managers responsible for the implementation and development of safety culture
The Company also has the NPP Safety Culture Committees in place that identify strategic areas for the development of the safety culture and analyse their achievements.
To increase safety at NPPs, Energoatom has set up a working group which is also responsible for the replication of the existing positive practices in the area of safety culture at all nuclear power plants of Ukraine as well as for further safety culture improvements.
Energoatom has initiated to hold the International Research and Practice Conference on Safety Culture every two years. Its goal is to confirm the commitment of the operator to safety and the priority of safety over production and economic objectives, as well as to ensure the effective exchange of internal and external practices and information on safety culture improvement. The conference is attended not only by the Company’s employees but also by representatives of executive authorities, supervisory bodies, R&D organisations, contracting organisations, international organisations (WANO, IAEA, etc.), national and international experts in the field of nuclear energy, and professors of specialised educational institutions. According to the results of the safety culture inspection at Energoatom NPPs held in 2016, which also pursued the goal to determine good practice and identify inconsistencies in each direction, the commissions found and gave:
- 78 positive case studies
- 209 inconsistencies
- 23 recommendations.
In 2016, the Company for the first time applied the good practice identified during previous inspections. Based on the inspections of safety culture in 2014, 101 positive practices were offered for consideration and studied by each nuclear power plant, of which 51 were selected for further implementation.
Each Ukrainian nuclear power plant has examples of good safety culture practices consistent with the best international practices gained during the implementation of international projects, technical assistance missions, as well as the recommendations of the IAEA and WANO missions to address the "weaknesses of operation" and their own developments.
Good practices in safety culture
Zaporizhzhya NPP has gained considerable experience in staff training during the implementation of international project "Establishment of the National Centre for Training of Energoatom Repair and Management Staff on the basis of Scientific and Technical Centre of Zaporizhzhya NPP". The project was implemented within the framework of Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation (INSC), a programme for international technical cooperation between the European Union and Ukraine. This initiative combines two separate projects: creation of the Centre for Training Repair Staff of Energoatom and creation of the Training Centre for Training Energoatom Managers.
South-Ukraine NPP has completed the project "Improving NPP Safety through the In-Depth Understanding of the Human Factor Influence”. The project was implemented as part of the programme for INSC “soft assistance”. In 2013, South-Ukraine NPP launched the project which provided for the transfer of international developments on the impact of human factor on NPP power unit safety, presentation of best practices to the NPP senior management, development of unified database for accounting of events associated with the human factor. OKO system for detecting and eliminating inconsistencies has been implemented and successfully applied at the NPP. It gives every worker not only the right but also practical opportunity to directly participate in the establishment of operational order by leaving remarks and suggestions in the central database.
Since 2014, Rivne NPP has been implementing an INSC subproject "Improvement of Processes for NPP Equipment Configuration Information Management". This is a part of Joint Nuclear Safety Programme for Operational Safety Improvement, Compliance with Safety Regulations and Efficient Use of the Staff Potential of Energoatom and its NPPs.
Khmelnytska NPP is a pilot for the implementation of the project "Safety Culture Management Improvement at Energoatom and its NPPs”. The initiative has been carried out in cooperation with the European Commission since December 2011. Within the framework of the project, the Company did the best case studies in NPP safety culture management, made a comparative analysis and summarised the existing approaches and methods for safety culture management at NPPs and the Company in general, updated safety culture educational materials taking into account the comments, and the systemic approach to training. The project is also used to develop action plans to enhance the safety culture at Energoatom. The Company develops and implements such plans on a permanent basis and plans to develop Energoatom’s safety standard.
Programmes for basic staff training contain safety culture modules. The Company has developed educational and methodical materials on the subject. They help train various categories of workers. The new employees have to take mandatory safety culture training.
Partnership inspections take place at the level of NPP subunits. Also, the subunits regularly evaluate the safety culture in accordance with the programmes developed under the recommendations of the IAEA. The results help identify the status of safety culture across subunits and develop and implement remedial actions if necessary.
The Security Directorate of the Company regularly assesses the safety culture of operational staff. In addition, the assessment of safety culture is conducted within the framework of the IAEA Operational Safety Analysis Review Team (OSART) missions, during which experts examine issues relating to operational and design safety, radioactive materials treatment, etc. In 2009, Energoatom decided to include the development and enhancement of safety culture into the list of its core activities and create a special platform to carry out this activity.
Since 2009, Energoatom has developed and implemented four Programmes for Safety Culture Upgrade (2009-2010, 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016).
While developing the Programme for 2015-2016, the Company also reviewed the structure and integrated the requirements of the regulatory documents "General Requirements for the Nuclear Energy Use Management System" and "Requirements for the Management System of the Operating Organisation (Operator)" that were enacted in 2012. As a result, the Company managed to develop more specific and more targeted measures.
With the implementation of Programme for 2015-2016, the Company supplemented and systematised its many years of experience in safety culture development and continued safety culture improvements. The main achievements of the programmes implemented by Energoatom include the development of a number of ongoing measures in the Company that contribute to improving its ability to maintain the culture of safety.
CREATING SAFE AND HEALTHY WORKING CONDITIONS
Energoatom has established the priority of life and health of its employees and taken full responsibility for the creation of appropriate, safe and healthy working conditions at the workplace in each subdivision as this is the core of the public occupational health and safety policy.
The Company has the H&S system in place and pursues a policy, which is based on the best practices of leading global organisations working in the area of nuclear energy use.
Energoatom’s key H&S goals (objectives), ways of achievement and expected results
Creating proper safe and healthy working conditions at workplaces in all subdivisions according to the requirements of the occupational health and safety laws
Ensuring the functioning of the H&S system at Energoatom
H&S rights of employees are guaranteed
Financing the H&S activity according to the applicable legislation
Providing financing to H&S activities and initiatives in separate subdivisions of the Company according to the List approved by Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dd 27 June 2003 No. 994 in the amount specified by the collective bargaining agreements of Energoatom
Improvement in the working conditions, safer and healthier working conditions for the Company’s employees
Improving working conditions at workplaces, preventing occupational injuries and diseases
Developing the Comprehensive Action Plan for achieving the established regulations in the area of safety, occupational medicine, production environment, raising the H&S level, and preventing occupational injuries and accidents (in cooperation with trade union committees of separate subdivisions of the Company). Ensuring the implementation of the Action Plan and providing the financing as specified by the Collective Bargaining Agreement of Energoatom.
Reduction in the level of occupational injuries and diseases and improvement of working conditions at workplaces
Training staff according to the applicable H&S laws
Providing training, knowledge tests, and advance training in H&S for the employees of the Company according to the requirements of the Standard Regulations on the Procedures for H&S Training and Knowledge Testing
Reduction in the number of violations of H&S regulations by the Company's staff
Ensuring acquisition and maintenance of personal and collective protective equipment, providing additional supplies of such equipment and its distribution among employees, providing safety labels, plates, signal tapes and other types of visual propaganda according to the requirements of the applicable laws
Ensuring procurement (including centralised procurement) of working clothes and footwear and personal and collective protective equipment, safety labels, plates, signal tapes and other types of visual propaganda for separate subdivisions of the Company
Protection of employees from the impact of harmful and hazardous factors
Provision of good quality protective equipment at best prices for the employees of the Company
Reduction in the number of accidents caused through the failure to provide personal and collective protective equipment to the staff
Providing benefits and compensations, improving the working conditions, withdrawing staff from harmful and hazardous working environment
Organising H&S assessment of workplaces at separate subdivisions of the Company according to the schedules
Provision of benefits and compensations, improvement in the working conditions, withdrawal of staff from harmful and hazardous working environment as a result of improvement in the working conditions at workplaces
Ensuring constant monitoring of safety and working conditions
Daily inspection of workplaces to assess the working conditions, scheduled targeted and extraordinary H&S inspections at separate subdivisions of the Company
Introducing quarterly reports on this issue
Improvement of safety at workplaces, prompt implementation of the required actions
Analysing H&S in the Company
Introducing quarterly H&S analysis in separate subdivisions of the Company
Developing consolidated H&S reports
Analysis of H&S and implementation of the actions required for H&S improvement
Investigating accidents and occupational diseases according to the requirements of the current legislation. Addressing the causes of accidents and occupational diseases. Ensuring social protection of employees, providing compensation to the victims of production accidents and occupational diseases
Investigating accidents and keeping the accounting of incidents, occupational diseases and accidents as well as non-occupational injuries of the Company's employees according to the requirements of the applicable legislation
Developing and implementing preventive measures
Providing help to the victims of occupational accidents as specified by the laws
Reduction in the injury rate and occupational diseases rate, development and implementation of the required actions. Social protection of victims of occupational accidents and provision of compensation to the victims
Conducting safety outreach activities, strengthening commitment of the Company’s employees to safety
Holding H&S Days, safety contests among work teams, Best in Profession Contest, Best Team Contest, etc. Providing incentives and encouragement to employees for the commitment to H&S culture
Safety improvement, reduction in injury rate, compliance of employees with the applicable H&S regulations
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Energoatom management system (including the system of H&S management, and monitoring of nuclear, radiation, and technical safety, and environmental protection) is described in the General Guidelines on the Integrated Management Control System at Energoatom, the key document that integrates the existing requirements into the Company’s management system applied with due regard to ISO 9001.
In 2016, Energoatom held a tender to conclude a contract with the National Research Institute of Occupational Health and Safety to develop H&S management system for Energoatom on the basis of DSTU OHSAS 18001:2010. The first and second stages of the project were implemented in line with the schedule.
In November 2016, the results of the audit conducted by International Audit Group International Management Services Ltd, a representative of TÜV NORD CERT GmbH in Ukraine, confirmed the compliance of the integrated control system of Energoatom and separate subdivisions of the Company with three international standards: EN ISO 9001:2008 "Quality Management Systems. Requirements”; EN ISO 14001:2004 "Environmental Management systems. Requirements with Guidance for Use"; and BS OHSAS 18001:2007 "Occupational Health and Safety Management System". The validity period of certificates is three years.
In 2016, 23 Energoatom experts received certificates of internal auditors which entitle them to conduct internal audits of the occupational health and safety management system at NPPs.
Energoatom applies the occupational health and safety management system in accordance with OHSAS 18001:2007 to do the following operations:
Generate electric and thermal energy
Perform repairs, assemblies and reconstruction works
Develop, design and manufacture equipment, devices and special means
Provide engineering support and capital construction
Provide scientific and technical support
Provide and manage resources
Ensure constant preparedness for rapid response in the event of nuclear and radiation accidents
The management system is certified for compliance with international standards within the framework of the Environmental and Social Action Plan of the CCSUP.
FINANCING H&S ACTIVITIES
According to the Law of Ukraine On Occupational Health and Safety, H&S costs should make at least 0.5% of the payroll fund for the previous year. In 2016, Energoatom collective bargaining agreement established financing of H&S expenses at the level of 7% of Energoatom payroll fund in 2015 for separate subdivisions exposed to serious and dangerous production factors and at the level specified in the current legislation for other separate subdivisions.
Annually Energoatom and trade union committees develop comprehensive measures to achieve the established standards on safety, occupational health and production environment as well as improve H&S, prevent occupational injuries, diseases and accidents (Comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Measures). In 2016, Energoatom implemented 78 comprehensive H&S measures worth UAH 26.7 million.
IN H&S EXPENSES OF ENERGOATOM IN 2016
In 2016, H&S expenses accounted for 6.44% of the Company’s payroll fund in 2015
Actions undertaken by Energoatom to prevent occupational injuries:
- The Company organises monthly H&S Days, conducts comprehensive and targeted inspections to assess H&S at subdivisions, publishes H&S materials in corporate newspapers. All subdivisions have installed H&S information boards.
- All non-occupational accidents/injuries are to be discussed with the staff to identify their causes and circumstances.
- All contractors are subject to the audit to confirm they can carry out high hazardous works and operate equipment in high-risk environment.
- The bonus fund for subdivisions with systemic, repeated H&S violations is subject to decrease.
- The H&S issues/problems can be viewed online through the plant’s computer network.
- Before any repairs start, NPPs have to implement the orders of the CEO "On Preventive H&S Measures During the 2016 Repair Campaign" which specify the actions to ensure safe performance of works.
- There is ongoing control over the compliance with traffic rules on the staff commuting route.
Energoatom keeps taking actions to prevent occupational injuries and diseases, detect, assess and minimise production risks.
All cases of occupational injuries at Energoatom are thoroughly investigated in accordance with the Regulations on the Procedures for Investigation and Accounting of Occupational Injuries, Diseases and Accidents. The results of the investigation are used for the development and implementation of the appropriate measures to eliminate the causes that led to the accidents and for the prevention of similar injuries.
Occupational injuries at Energoatom, 2014–2016
Number of injuries
Injury frequency rate
Injury severity rate
In 2016, the Company registered 8 occupational injuries:
- Zaporizhzhya NPP – 4 injuries;
- Atomenergomash – 2 injuries;
- Rivne NPP – 1 injury;
- AtomRemontService – 1 injury.
Neither occupational diseases nor accidents happened at Energoatom in 2015 or 2016.
Causes of occupational injuries in 2016:
- violation of occupational discipline, failure to perform duties and H&S regulations;
- violation of safety requirements when operating machinery equipment and mechanisms;
- structural defects of parts of mechanisms;
- engagement of non-professional workers;
- unsatisfactory health condition;
- unsatisfactory state of the site;
- personal negligence.
The information about the cases of injuries in the Company was promptly provided to all separate subdivisions, the Company's management, the Ministry of Energy and Coal Industry of Ukraine, as well as it was published in consolidated quarterly H&S reports of Energoatom. Reports were sent to all separate subdivisions of the Company for the staff to understand the causes and circumstances of accidents and prevent similar violations in the future.
NPP H&S TRAINING FOR EMPLOYEES
Teaching staff to follow H&S procedures at Energoatom and making them learn regulatory framework in the H&S area is of great importance both for employee awareness and for reducing risks of occupational and non-occupational injuries.
NPP staff take H&S training under the relevant programmes. Depending on the basic level of training and qualification of employees, the Company develops individual training programmes as well as training programmes in the profession or a relevant allied profession.
Energoatom Head Office provides work permits to the staff only after they have taken the H&S training and passed the H&S and fire safety tests. In separate subdivisions, workers can be also admitted to work after having passed the relevant knowledge tests.
Emergency and fire-fighting drills present one of the forms of training and maintaining the skills of staff. They are held with the purpose to form and check the readiness of the Company's employees to perform their duties in non-routine situations of various types and levels (violation of normal operation, emergencies, and accidents, including beyond-design basis accidents, ignition and fire).
During the autumn-winter period of 2016-2017, the Company carried out fire-fighting and emergency response drills for operational staff. The drills addressed a situation with a frequency-fall in the power system and a sharp drop in temperature and hurricane-force winds, and powered off VRU-330 (750) kV.
NPP operational staff is subject to additional requirements in terms of their qualifications, professional selection and training for the position. They have to undergo emergency response training according to the "Procedures for Preparation, Organisation and Conduct of Emergency Drills in Separate Subdivisions of Energoatom" and the relevant regulations on the organisation and conduct of emergency response drills as well as provisions for organisation and evaluation of general emergency response training developed at NPPs.
Emergency drills at Emergency and technical centre in 2016
In total, the Company organised 502 emergency drills for emergency teams, including:
- 9 comprehensive emergency drills
- 2 comprehensive fire-fighting drills
- 1 joint command and staff emergency response drill with a visit to Khmelnytska NPP.
Total investment in the training drills made UAH 32,800.
INVESTED BY ENERGOATOM IN H&S TRAINING AND KNOWLEDGE TESTING IN 2016
Firefighting training at South-Ukraine NPP
In August-September 2016, South-Ukraine NPP organised special training courses for the administrative staff, the heads of subdivisions which are responsible for NPP fire safety, as well as for the staff of workshops engaged in maintenance of the fire alarm and safety system.
The classes were conducted by professors of the Institute of Postgraduate Education (Lviv State University of Life Safety under umbrella of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine).
The goal of the training course was to raise qualifications of the NPP staff that provides support and maintenance of the fire safety systems as well as teach them modern methods of maintenance and development. During lectures and practical classes, the participants obtained theoretical and practical knowledge about the design of firefighting systems, installation and maintenance of the firefighting systems and special firefighting equipment operating at nuclear power plants. Also, the lessons helped share positive practices of other NPPs.
“My colleagues and I seek not only to communicate the NPP fire safety regulations to the training participants, but we also want to explain the current regulations and requirements for the fire safety systems and equipment, tell them about modern methods of maintenance and performance check, share the practices of other national and international companies operating in this area. Of course, high level of fire safety requires huge organisational, technical and economic costs, but they are justified because fire safety at NPP is closely connected with radiation, nuclear, environmental and technological safety."
Oleksandr Vorobiov, head of the faculty group, assistant professor of the Engineering Support Department, the Institute of Postgraduate Education of the Lviv State University of Life Safety.
After the training course, the participants have to take some tests and an exam. Participants with positive test results will receive a special course completion certificate that will entitle them to perform fire-fighting works.
Energoatom employees have to take advanced training courses throughout their employment at the plant. It ensures consistency in staff development.
Professional training of the staff of separate subdivisions, as a rule, is organised at the training centres of the nuclear power plants, AtomRemontService company and at workplaces. The major forms of teaching include theoretical training in classrooms, mock-up training, information stands, simulators and training grounds, training in laboratories and at workshops, training at the workplace and training with the use of automated training systems.
In addition, the Company conducts training for employees to develop decision-making and teamwork skills and control staff qualification.
Training simulators are used for employees taking certain positions, and certified staff is trained at full-scale simulators of power units. During the training, appropriate training technology is used along simulators and other technical means of training. It includes the organisation and preparation of classes, their psychological and pedagogical support, training sessions, analysis, evaluation and adjustment of the educational process. Such actions help monitor the achievement of the training goals.
Certified employees fully ensure safe operations of Energoatom power units
CARING ABOUT OUR EMPLOYEES’ HEALTH
An important issue for the Head Office and separate subdivisions of Energoatom is to ensure the health of employees and timely detect occupational diseases. This is especially important considering the fact that the work in the nuclear industry is often associated with an increased risk, including radiation risk.
Energoatom has set the goal to maintain the health and work ability of staff of NPP and other separate subdivisions of the Company.
Energoatom conducts regular outreach activities with the staff, telling them about the importance of responsible attitude towards their own health, objective assessment of their health, and timely medical advice.
Energoatom’s separate subdivisions that perform high hazardous works have been implementing the mechanisms for psychophysiological examination (psychophysiological check-up) of employees. In particular, a part of the staff took a psychophysiological examination at NPP training centres, while other employees were examined by representatives of the Expert Technical Centre of the State H&S Department and regional centres for psychophysiological examination of workers.
Psychophysiological examination is performed to:
- ensure safety, reliability and efficiency of NPP operation by streamlining HR management;
- reduce labour losses and prevent accidents;
- select additional workers capable of mastering the profession and performing their duties efficiently thanks to their important psychophysiological features;
- prolong job longevity.
The Employee Selection Commission makes the decision on the professional aptitude of a candidate, taking into account the recommendations of HR department, knowledge control department, results of the interview with the head of a subdivision employing the candidate and opinion of the psycho-physiological examination.
INVESTED BY ENERGOATOM IN MEDICAL CHECK-UPS OF EMPLOYEES IN 2016
HAD MEDICAL CHECK-UPS IN 2016
PLANS FOR 2017 AND A MEDIUM TERM
Realising the importance of NPP safe operations and taking into account the recommendations of the IAEA, Energoatom keeps doing everything it can to develop, support and enhance the safety culture. All of these measures have been designed to promote employee commitment to safety, raise staff awareness of personal responsibility for safety and compliance with the safety culture principles.
To ensure safe operations of NPPs as well as to increase the level of safety and efficiency of nuclear power plants, the plans for 2017 include the following:
- ensure compliance with the schedule of preventive maintenance works on power units in 2017;
- implement the actions specified by the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs in accordance with the 2017 Plan;
- perform the activities planned for 2017 to prolong the life cycle of power units;
- ensure the implementation of programmes for increasing Energoatom’s efficiency within the scope scheduled for 2017, in particular:
- the Operational Efficiency Improvement Programme at Energoatom’s NPPs;
- the Nuclear Power Unit Capacity Enhancement Programme;
- the Action Plan for Raising the Reliability of Steam Generators and Condensers at Energoatom NPPs for 2014–2020;
- o the Programme for Maintenance and Repairs at Energoatom for 2014–2017;
- ensure physical protection of NPPs and implement extraordinary activities according to the nuclear power laws.
In 2017-2018, Energoatom will implement the fifth Programme for Safety Culture Upgrade. In addition to the new measures, the document includes the activities of the Specific Action Plan for Energoatom’s safety culture improvement and management developed on the basis of the INSC Programme 2009 U1.05 / 09 T5 “Assistance in Development of the Programme for NPP Safety Culture Improvement”.
The action plan provides for a staged implementation of the recommendations provided by the consultant (Iberdrola Company). These recommendations use the best international practices and take into account the experience of leading western NPPs and change management operators in the implementation of new safety culture management practices.
The document also specifies creation of the “non-punitive safety culture” in the Company. It is expected that these measures will help increase the efficiency of the case management and reduce the number of low-level events and undeveloped events at the Energoatom nuclear power plants.
It is expected that the implementation of the Programme for 2017-2018 will complement and systematise the long experience of Energoatom in development of the safety culture and contribute to its continuous improvement.
In 2017-2018, Energoatom for the first time will launch the Consolidated Programme for Improvement of Human and Organisational Factors Management and Human Error Risk Reduction. The initiative contains measures from the existing plans and programmes, as well as new measures that have been developed on the basis of the best world practices, recommendations of WANO, IAEA and other international organisations.
The programme goals include:
- improve human and organisational factors management at Energoatom;
- develop and improve focus areas that directly influence actions of the NPP staff;
- reduce the number of violations connected with employee mistakes and organisational failures at NPPs.